실업자는 여러가지 종류가 있습니다.

  1. Cyclical unemployment -불황으로 생긴 실업자들입니다. 경기가 안좋아지면 기업들이 노동자들을 해고 하면서 생기는 실업자들 이기에 정부는 실업수당를 줍니다. 이들은 일하고 싶지만 일자리가 없어서 일할수가 없습니다. 정부가 부양책을 하는 이유가 이실업자들에게 일자리를 제공하기위함입니다.
  2. Structure unemployment -구조적으로 생기는 실업자들입니다. 기술의 발전으로 산업이나 소비형태가 바뀌면서 생기는 실업자들입니다. 이런경우는 새로운 기술을 배울수있도록 해줘야합니다.
  3. Frictional unemployment-새로운 직장를 찾기위해서 자발적 실업자들입니다. 이부류는 크게 걱정하지도 않아도 됩니다. 아무리 경제가 좋아도 이부류의 실업자들은 항상 존재합니다. 실업률이 0% 가 될수없는 이유이죠.

Cyclical unemployment occurs when there are too few jobs to employ everyone who wants to work. This is what happens during a recession, and it’s the worst.

Structural unemployment is caused by changes that affect the labor market, such as improved technology or shifting consumer preferences. New opportunities are created, but the changes cause some people to lose jobs.

Frictional unemployment occurs as part of normal turnover in the labor market; someone who is unemployed takes time to find a desirable job or an employer waits for the best applicants.

보통 실업률을 이야기 하면 U-3 (Official) 실업률을 가르킵니다. 현재 이실업률은 4.9% 인데 이상태를 완전 고용상태라고 말합니다. 즉인플레이션이 생기지않고 경제가 성장할수있는 실업률이라고 하지요. 가장 좁은의미의 (U1) 실업률 은 2.1%  그리고 가장 넓은의미의(U 6)실업률은 현재 9.7%  입니다. 지난 1999년 그리고 2007년 에는 U3 실업률은 각각 4%  그리고 4.2% 이였고 U6 실업률은 5.5% 그리고 8% 로 현재 실업률 보다 낮습니다.

 

NA-CJ279B_NUMBE_16U_20160303191245

 

  1. U-1 Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force
  2. U-2 Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force
  3. U-3 Total unemployed, as a percent of the civilian labor force (official unemployment rate)
  4. U-4 Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers
  5. U-5 Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force
  6. U-6 Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part time for economic reasons, as a percent of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force

Persons marginally attached to the labor force are those who currently are neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past 12 months. Discouraged workers, a subset of the marginally attached, have given a job-market related reason for not currently looking for work. Persons employed part time for economic reasons are those who want and are available for full-time work but have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Updated population controls are introduced annually with the release of January data.

Read Related Articles: http://www.wsj.com/articles/what-the-unemployment-rate-shows-1457106385

http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm

http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t15.htm

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